It's important to know that, in general, defining an Alias does not declare a "new type", instead it is just providing a shorthand for referring to some type. For simple (non-recursive) Alias definitions, you are simply defining a new, more convenient way to refer to a type that is equivalent to typing out the long-form of the type.
The example below demonstrates how variables with types declared using equivalent aliases, will in fact type-check as having the same type:
alias IntList1 : [int] alias IntList2 : [int] var i1: IntList1 = ; var i2: IntList2 = ; i1 = i2; # IntList1 is equivalent to IntList2. var iLiteral: [int] = ; i2 = iLiteral; # IntList2 is equivalent to [int].
Claro's Aliases are a mechanism to define values with "structural types". Roughly speaking, this is why any variables declared with "structurally equivalent" aliases are considered to have interchangeable types, regardless of the originally used alias in each variable's declaration. Many languages use a different form of typing known as "nominal typing" which implies that the name of the type is the thing that determines equivalence, rather than the structure, but this is not the case with Aliases in Claro.
Nominal typing can actually be very useful, however, for enforcing maintenance of inter-field invariants in structured data, so, in the future Claro will provide a mechanism to define new, "nominally typed" type definitions. This will allow making a distinction between two "structurally equivalent" types that have different names.
This will allow you to confidently ensure that data with a certain type that semantically has inter-field invariants that need to be maintained across mutations are not semantically invalidated by passing the data off to a mutating procedure that wasn't implemented with the nominal type's invariants in mind. This semantic data invalidation would be easy to run into if the only type validation scheme available was structural typing, as that validation scheme makes type equivalence decisions with zero semantic knowledge.
Stay tuned for opt-in nominal types support.